Ladies and Gentlemen:
Welcome to the Great Wall. Starting out in the east on the banks of the Yale River in Leaning Province, the Wall stretches westwards for 12,700 kilometers to Jiayuguan in the Gobi desert, thus known as the Ten Thousand Li Wall in China. The Wall climbs up and down, twists and turns along the ridges of the Yanshan and Yinshan Mountain Chains through five provinces——Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Gansu and two autonomous regions——Ningxia and Inner Mongolia, binding the northern China together.
Historical records trace the construction of the origin of the Wall to defensive fortification back to the year 656 B.C. during the reign of King Cheng of the States of Chu. Its construction continued throughout the Warring States period in the fifth Century B.C. Walls, then, was built separately by these ducal states to ward off such harassments. Later in 221 B.C. The most extensive reinforcements and renovations were carried out in the Ming Dynasty (1368——1644) when altogether 18 lengthy stretches were reinforced with bricks and rocks. it is mostly the Ming Dynasty Wall that visitors see today.
The Great Wall is divided into two sections, the east and west, with Shanxi Province as the dividing line. The west part is a rammed earth construction, about 5.3 meters high on average. In the eastern part, the core of the Wall is rammed earth as well, but the outer shell is reinforced with bricks and rocks. The most imposing and best preserved sections of the Great Wall are at Badaling and Mutianyu, not far from Beijing and both are open to visitors.
The Wall of those sections is 7.8 meters high and 6.5 meters wide at its base, narrowing to 5.8 meters on the ramparts, wide enough for five horses to gallop abreast. Two-storied watch-towers are built at approximately 400-meters internals. The top stories of the watch-tower were designed for observing enemy movements, while the first was used for storing grain, fodder, military equipment and gunpowder as well as for quartering garrison soldiers. The highest watch-tower at Badaling standing on a hill-top, is reached only after a steep climb, like "climbing a ladder to heaven".
There stand 14 major passes (Guan, in Chinese) at places of strategic importance along the Great Wall, the most important being Shanghaiguan and Jiayuguan. Yet the most impressive one is Juyongguan, about 50 kilometers northwest of Beijing.
Known as "Tian Xia Di YI Guan" (The First PaUnder Heaven), Shanghaiguan Pais situated between two sheer cliffs forming a neck connecting north China with the northeast. It had been, therefore, a key junction contested by all strategists and many famous battles were fought here. It was the gate of Shanghaiguan that the Ming general Wu Sangui opened to the Manchu army to supprethe peasant rebellion led by Li Zicheng and so surrendered the whole Ming empire to the Manchus, leading to the foundation of the Qing Dynasty.
Friends: now, we come to the tiananmen square, I'll do a simple introduce for everybody, tiananmen square is the world's largest city center square, it is located in the center of Beijing city. Tiananmen square, rectangular, north and south long 880 meters, 500 meters wide, with a total area of 440000 square meters. If people stand side by side in the square, the square can accommodate 1 million people, is fully 1/13 of the total population of Beijing can be standing here at the same time, big enough!
In Ming and qing dynasties square can have no so big, it is the "T" glyph, "T" word of the cross is our today's changan avenue and the shaft is GuoQiGan from now to the chairman MAO memorial hall before the rectangular area, in this area is the Wen Dongwu west on both sides of the pattern of distribution when the government authority. After the liberation, the original square on both sides of the building was demolished, thus formed the basic pattern of square today.
Around the perimeter of the tiananmen square, there are many famous buildings, now I'm in clockwise direction for everyone to do a simple introduction, let's start with square on the west side of the great hall of the people! The great hall of the people in the west side of tiananmen square, is the National People's Congress in politics, town hall, a major conference, the exercise of sovereignty self-determination, established in 1959, the top 46.5 meters, is now the tallest building in the square. Consists of three parts in the great hall of the south for the National People's Congress standing committee office building, is the great hall of ten thousand people, in central north is state banquet hall, the entire building from design to finished only 10 months, is a miracle in the history of architecture in our country.
Is familiar to everyone at the northern end of the square of the tiananmen gate, it is the symbol of new China, is on the tiananmen rostrum, October 1, 1949, chairman MAO zedong solemnly declared to people of the world, "the founding of the People's Republic of China! Chinese people have stood up from now on!" :
On the east side of the square stands the national museum of Chinese history and the museum of Chinese revolution, completed in 1959, there is a collection and exhibition of Chinese ancient cultural relics, modern history and the place where revolutionary cultural relics.
In the south of the monument to the people's heroes is chairman MAO's memorial hall, where there was a door, called daming gate in the Ming dynasty, qing qing door, and gate of China, instead of the republic of China after the liberation, after MAO's death in 1976 at its base built the solemn gloom of the chairman MAO memorial hall. Memorial hall was built in 1977, was built to commemorate the great leader chairman MAO, chairman MAO's body was now lying in the crystal, for people to mourn, viewing, to express deep respect.
The center of the square, wei stands first tablet, China - the people's heroes monument, it commemorates those who from the opium war in 1840 to 1840 of the founding of the People's Republic of China that more than one hundred years for the independence and freedom of the Chinese nation, sprinklewarm-blooded built to the heroes of the people. The monument is 37.94 meters tall, is located in double pedestal, stele base inlaid around eight white marble sculpture, reflects China nearly a century revolutionary history. The back of the monument is chairman MAO, premier zhou calligraphy inscriptions, and positive is chairman MAO's handwriting inscribed "to the people's heroes are immortal" eight gold-filled characters.
Tiananmen square is witness to modern Chinese revolution, the May 4th movement, three ˙ anti-imperialist and anti-feudal September 18th massacre, just a little ˙ nine occurred here. Tiananmen square is also a witness of the birth of new China, and witness to the people's happy life today. Now, it has been rated as "China's first scene", to the national people's every day from the friends from home and abroad to visit and tour.
Good! Don't say! You must want to a few picture taken here? Please free photo right now, we are to meet at the north GuoQiGan after 10 minutes, thank you!
Dear visitors, everybody!
Welcome to Beijing, my name is fang fang, you can call our guide. Today I will lead you to visit the Forbidden City, which is famous all over the world, I hope we can spend a happy time.
The imperial palace is the largest and most complete imperial palace in China, is the most magnificent ancient architectural complex in the world, has a history of nearly 600 years.
The Forbidden City is China's Ming and qing dynasties 24 of the emperor's palace, the palace construction layout can be divided into the outer court and the imperial palace. The outer court is the place where the emperor held a ceremony and summoned the minister. Which building is the hall of supreme harmony, zhonghe palace and Baohe Palace, the three main halls of the mandarin house and hall of martial valor is divided on both sides. Imperial palace is the emperor to handle daily affairs and the harem concubines and young prince live, play, in the place of god.
The Forbidden City, a total of more than 9000 rooms, with a house, most magnificent majesty. The Forbidden City is China's ancient architecture masters and skillful craftsman is special the crystallization of technology and rich alike. Such as: 72 pillars in the hall of supreme harmony, including six pillar is plated with gold, with golden dragon coiled. Through the railing into the hall look, you will see in a glorious temple. Is gilded throne, armrest is silver plated, four incense burner is made of wood, it's gorgeous. After the hall of supreme harmony is zhonghe palace, zhonghe palace is the place where the emperor rest. The most let you amazing is confirmed and behind a piece of stone. Stone 16.57 meters long, 3.07 meters wide, 1.7 meters thick, more than 200 tons. Vulture on the rough sea, walking on dragons. The Palace Museum truly was China's valuable cultural heritage!
Now I'll give you two hours of free time to visit. Please the face of these cultural relics left behind by our ancestors, to cherish all the more, be careful, don't damage, you can use the camera according to their favorite part. And, in addition to the photos, you don't take anything, besides, you don't leave anything.
We should get back, hope you like Beijing, have a chance to come to Beijing to visit the other 20 cultural heritage.